Tejas Networks - Product based IT business in a favored sector?

Introduction :
It is one of very few product based IT company in India having it’s big set of Patents and Intellectual property. It spends good percentage of it’s expenses on R&D which is also very rare.
It is involved in design, development and maintenance of it’s optical data network products.
They manufacture what they call as “Software Defined Hardware” which means hardware that can be programmed to easily upgrade technology. Typically, product based business is a hit or miss kind of thing. It takes lot resources to develop a product but if it works out and is accepted by the market then it can become huge very easily, especially the technology products.
They have successfully completed many projects domestically as well as globally. Globally, their products were deployed in data networks in Mexico, Bangladesh, Algeria etc. and locally they have been involved with BSNL, Sterlite Technologies (Integration partner) etc. They were part of BharatNet Phase 1 and were awarded for their good work too. It is expected that they will receive order in Phase2 as well. They also recently received an order from Sterlite Technologies for network contract from Indian Navy.
This shows that their product is being accepted. The products are cutting edge technology and provides flexibility to upgrade easily. Given the kind of tail winds data network sector is facing, this business will also gain from it.

Numbers :


  1. Sales growth since last 5 years had been 15% and 24% since last 3 years. Please note that sales growth for product based company of this kind is usually very different. It takes time for sales to pick up but if products are successful then the growth rate can be very high very quickly.

  2. PAT Margin has improved from 4.3% in 2016 to 18%

Risks/ Negatives :

  1. Many of the clients are PSUs or GOI which increases working capital cycle.
  2. ROE and ROCE are low



Can you provide the list of sucesssful products till now designed/made by tejas

You can find it on their website and AR.


Disc: invested

Tejas is part of my Indian IT 2.0 thesis. The thesis is that Indian IT is going to move from simply being a cheaper destination to a true technological destination. To that effect I have already invested in KPIT, and now would like to discuss Tejas.

Tejas is ~Rs2000cr market capitalization optical equipment company with a TTM revenue of Rs775crore, and Rs138cr PAT. It is a virtually zero debt company, with cash on books accounting for almost 23% of its market capitalization. Tejas has a deep technology focused (340+ patents, 10-12% of revenues spent on R&D) asset-light model, with over 50% of its staff employed in R&D. Its unique “software defined hardware” architecture offers a scalable, re-programmable, customizable product to its customers that is 30-50% cheaper to operate.

I believe, like with most true technology companies, incremental growth will come at very small addition to cost (high operating leverage). If my investment thesis pans out, Tejas can become a disproportionately powerful cash generating engine even if revenues track a secular growth of 20-25%.


Telecom large capex is broadly divided into three categories:

  • Mobile Infrastructure – Eriksson, Nokia, Huawei etc
  • Routers and Switches – Cisco, Juniper etc
  • Optical transmission – Tejas, Cienna, ECI, Adva etc

Even within the optical segment, there are two kinds of players, the passive equipment players (Sterlite tech) and Active Equipment players (like Tejas).

The overall optical transmission market is about US$18bn, and this has been forecasted to grow to US$22bn by 2021-22. But Tejas’ addressable market is about US$9bn, if you look at just the areas that the Company targets. The company is not there in Europe or China, for instance.

The active optical equipment space can be further classified as:

Access – lower speed network

Aggregation – higher speed, where Tejas is focused

Core – Tejas will commercialize its Core products in the next year

The Indian market is very small, about US$700-750mn, but it is expected to be one of the fastest growing markets due to low optical fiber penetration. Only 20-25% of Indian cell towers are fiberized (vs. 70-80% level in other large countries), with the balance using microwave technology based backhaul. With 4G already in vogue in India and 5G on the way, there is going to be a need to shift to fiberized towers to handle the massive data load. The microwave based wireless transfer simply will not be enough. Tejas currently has about 10% share of this market, because it has focused on the urban sectors data aggregation equipment.

Once Tejas becomes a true end to end player (Access to Core), their market share will rise. Tejas is planning to expand into this space, because for international bidding being an end-to-end player is preferred. Notably, Tejas has focused on an asset-light model where it invests only in the R&D and not in the manufacturing of equipment. So the transition to an end-to-end player is unlikely to result in significant Capex. They partner with companies like Cyient, Samena etc, who do the capex investment for manufacturing, while Tejas does the design of PCBs and the relevant software and algos.

Tejas business model:

The company has a unique business model in the sense that its products are what it calls “software defined hardware”. What I understand is that the Company uses mass market blank silicon chips that have diverse applications (they are used in telecom, defence, aerospace, consumer electronics, automobiles etc) and then puts a layer of its IP/ software on these chips to convert them into optical products. This has two advantages, i.e. since these chips are on the mass market, the suppliers cannot squeeze Tejas on the hardware front. Additionally, this makes the chips re-programmable and scalable allowing new technologies and requirements to be programmed onto them without replacing the hardware (these updates are required when a new standard comes to market or say when 4G is changed to 5G). Apparently, the Company expects that the overall cost of technology for Telcos using Tejas products is about 30-50% cheaper than using traditional alternative optical products. Tejas is able to implement changes faster and has time to market advantage for its telco client.

The moat to this business is Tejas as a strong headstart in this “software defined hardware” area for optical applications. They have built up a huge IPR library in this space (340+ patents, 250+ silicon IPs, 3 million lines of embedded code). None of their large competitors have even started on this technology at all. It is not that large players cannot do this, but it would require a big re-engineering of their product philosophy. They are already committed to their traditional model because of the scale advantages it offered them. They are used to buying “fixed function silicon chips”. So when a new standard comes in, the larger players order these new chips and implement them on their networks. Because of the scale of their orders, they are able to get very good price points from their vendors. Had Tejas used this same strategy, they would not have been competitive as the same cheap price points would not be available to Tejas due to its smaller order size.

Tejas’ value proposition for its customers

This is typically a sticky business where telcos tend to stay with their tried and tested vendors. The industry is very standards driven, so strictly on this count there is no differentiability between one product versus another.

However Tejas’s chip being a re-programmable and scalable chip allows them to customize it for the needs of each customer . For example, Tejas can help its customers to leap frog technology generations. Usually traditional vendors will move with tech cycles. So when 2G was in vogue, they built products for 2G, then when 3G came and industry shifted to 3G, they started building products for 3G. Tejas generic chips can be used across these technology cycles, due to their programmability. The same product can be used across generations. Especially in markets like India where 3G came very late in 2010 vs. developed markets where it had come in mid 2000s, then suddenly 4G came in 2014. This reduces capex for these rapid changes, as new technology requirements will be incorporated into the existing product itself.

Although Tejas products may have comparable pricing with its competitors the nature of the product means that one should look at the total cost of ownership (TCO) over a period of time. Tejas has demonstrated through internal case studies etc. that the TCO of their products is lower by 30-50% vs. its competitors (across its geographies).

Growth drivers for Tejas

Biggest growth driver is the increasing data consumption that we see In India and around the world. All major operators in India use Tejas products in their networks. The Government flagship BharatNet scheme which aims to connect 250,000 gram panchayats is also a key demand driver for Tejas, especially in the context of the “Make in India”.

Apart from organic demand, there will also be replacement demand from those Telcos that are using competitive products as they strive to cut costs. As mentioned earlier, the TCO of Tejas’ products is 30-50% cheaper than traditional systems. Tejas will, I believe, be able to sustain this cost advantage due to its asset-light strategy, reliance on generic chips, and its low cost base in India.

Management quality:

Tejas has excellent management pedigree that includes Gururaj Deshpande (ex Sycamore, Coral networks etc), V Balakrishnan (ex CFO of Infosys), and Ms. Leela Ponappa (ex Ambassador) on its Board. The senior engineers and technology architects have been with Tejas for a decade plus. Tejas hires fresh graduates from premier institutes and develops strong in house talent.

Key financials:

3Y revenue Cagr (FY15 to FY18) -> 25% (Co. has guided for a 20% Revenue Cagr over next three years)

3Y Ebitda Cagr -> 30% (Co. makes gross margin of ~40%, near the industry best and may have upward bias going forward)

3Y PAT -> Rose from loss of Rs18cr in FY15, to profit of Rs107cr in FY18.

Operational efficiency:

ROCE rose from 3-4% level in FY15 to 10-11% level in FY18

In the same period, Fixed asset turnover has risen from ~3x to 6x. Given its asset light model I will not be surprised to see rapid acceleration in ROCE, as revenues increase.

Debtor days fell from over 200 in FY15 to 160 days in FY18

Cash generation:

CFO-> FY15 Rs76cr to FY18 Rs239cr

FCF -> FY15 Rs37cr to FY18 167cr (FCF yield of over 8%!)


The P&L impact of tax on Tejas’ books is currently zero. I assume that it because of the benefit it gets in tax computation for its R&D expense. The MAT that it pays is reported in the balance sheet assets side as it expects to get credit for the same when tax liability starts materializing.

Overall I think this may be great business for me to be invested in, available at reasonable valuations.


Can you please confirm if they are using Merchant Silicon in their products, as I could not find any info on that when I researched.

My notes

  1. Up to last year they had tieups for supplying devices to OEMs for their International Business which they have ended and they have started on their own. The results for which may be visible from next year
  2. For BharatNet Broadband phase I, management was saying their pie in overall project will be 15% and the project size was around 3500Cr. Considering that around 500Cr of business was expected from Bharatnet but it is not reflecting in the last years financials- Need to find out why it is not reflecting
  3. Last year management was guiding 20% growth but could not deliver due to several reasons. This year it needs to be seen how they perform
  4. Their Business Model got boost 3-4 years back when they decided to foray into GPON technology which the govt adopted for Bharatnet project

Future triggers for growth

  1. Fiberization of telecom towers in India
  2. FTTH(Fiber to the Home) projects from Jio and other telecom operators- When I checked the FTTH device for Jio they were using Taiwanese equipment as CPE(Customer Premises Equipment) and management said they are in talks with various telecom players for utilizing their devices in the connectivity
  3. Replacement market of old 2G/3G telecom equipment in South Africa and Latin America as these markets have similar demands like India
  4. Make in India components to be used instead of imported components. Recently Govt hiked custom duties for Optical Equipment which may give boost to sales of Tejas products
  5. Strong Alignment with Govt for forming policies related to Telecom Infra


  1. High Attrition rate for R&D staff
  2. No predictable growth


  1. International Business Scaling may take time
  2. Telecom Operators may delay the fiberization of towers by another 2-3 years due to cash crunch
  3. FTTH suppliers dont go ahead with devices manufactured by Tejas due to lower prices offered by Chinese/Taiwanese companies

Disc: Have a tracking position from last few months.


Ciena seems to be in similar business. It trades at about 1.5 time sales and 16-20 times earning. From that perspective it does not appear cheap being a small cap.

I think the difference is in the growth rates. Over the last 3 years Tejas has grown revenues at ~25% Cagr, and management has guided for 20% rates to be sustained in the medium term. Ciena has an average growth rate of 8-10%. Tejas also has stronger cash generation with an FCF yield of about 8% vs. Ciena of 3-4% (just looking at numbers from bloomberg.com). Even on earnings multiple Tejas appears to be at 10x, vs he 16-20 times for Ciena you mentioned.


Share holding pattern shows that mutual funds and FIIs both were buying and have increased stake in last quarter.

Disc : invested

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I am not familiar with industry terminology but when I spoke to the IR team at Tejas, they said wide application chips as I have mentioned in my detailed post. So if you are calling those as merchant silicon chips, then yes.

Their overall attrition is 10%, and is very low in the senior levels of R&D. I do not know how this compares with attrition rate for other comparable companies, but it doesnt sound high to me. I may be wrong.


Recent Interview of Tejas Networks MD- Mr. Sanjay Nayak
-International Business will have more bottomline

Results are out. Revenue down by 11%. PAT is flat. The management has guided that it still maintains 20% annual growth. The decline in revenue was due to delay in some big orders and payments for some government based tenders. As per this guidance the next quarter has to be very good otherwise 20% annual growth can not come. As of now, 9 month revenue and PAT are more or less same.

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Very good interview by CNBC after the results. Nigel is asking right set of questions about guidance and company’s confidence about it. Also has some clarifications about high receivables and how they will turn out in Q4.

The company has to do the revenue of about 290 crores to meet its 20% growth guidance. I can buy the management’s argument that their business is of kind where orders are few but big and delay in them could significantly impact quarter based performance. For next few quarters, this argument might be bought but for longer term this is concerning because it indicates that business model is highly dependent on PSU clients which are very unpredictable. Unless the company can increase pie of global clients and private clients this can result in longer working capital cycles, delayed orders and receivables etc.

Next quarter will be crucial because if guidance is not met in next quarter as well then it would be a strong signal for management quality and business quality both.

Telecom equipment biz is likely to be very lumpy unlike IT biz where things are straight forward. This is even more applicable to smaller companies with few product lines.

It has ingredients to be a multi bagger in long run.

Indian investors attach zero premium to IP. Remember how Biocon pipeline was assigned a negative value 2 years back.

Disc- Invested

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not a good news for TEJAS. Dont know if this is correct??

Tejas Networks equipment trigger BharatNet-I delay, firm denies

Not sure who is selling but stock is down 20% since this news. Now trading at trailing p/e of 10.

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Has been big disappointment for me? Keeping faith.

Fundamentals have not changed except for some orders getting pushed to next Q.

Business drivers are intact and can only get better:

  1. Enhanced budget allocation for defense forces network.
  2. Emphasis on Bharatnet
  3. 5G which will need fiberization
  4. untapped export market

Disc: Invested @200


It is disconcerting to note that a lot of employees have sold and are selling their shares over the past two years. As far as I could see, all of them were ‘disposals’ over the past 2 years!


Employees who draw among the highest salaries (north of 2cr) are disposing their shares regularly, even when the share price continues southward.

Latest being the IR manager who has sold a chunk in the past few days.

May be they know something that is not obvious to investors?

Invested - but waiting for now, to see if the company actually walks their talk in terms of sales.

Update 1: (After a couple of replies have been posted below) so as not to clutter the thread much.

Tejas does not have a dedicated ‘promoter’ group - so my understanding is that it is a company by & for the employees.
Employees with ~3cr and ~2.5cr are hired, for their talent and vision, I would presume. For them, selling a chunk of shares, in some thousands, is petty cash. Given their position in the company they would have a much higher point of view than regular employees, and them regularly disposing shares, throws a negative shade. Of course all of this is guess work; while the management will try to portray a rosy picture all the time; only time will tell the true picture.

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Employees typically sell as they get ESOPs regularly. It is a derisking as they don’t want company specific risk to their job as well as investments.

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As per last conference call, they stopped ESOPs and only be giving RSUs from this year.

Wow what a fall! What is going on? I think there was a hearing on the excise income tax case yesterday. Any news on that?