Green Hydrogen as a Fuel - Indian Companies leading the Green Revolution

Carbon Dioxide or popularly known as Carbon emission is a Potent “Green House Gas” known to cause Global warming and climate change. World over , the efforts are on to save the planet for reducing Carbon emissions and It is a no Brainer to understand that A Green fuel is one which Produces Zero Carbon emission during combustion process to produce energy /electricity.
Before we have a look at all our current fuels one by one to see if it fits in to our definition of Green fuel, let us define renewable and non-renewable sources of energy.

Renewable sources- these are the sources which are naturally available in plenty and for ever…e.g. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Bio-mass. Interestingly, all Renewable sources of energy donot produce any carbon emissions during the electricity/energy production , though Bio mass is an exception.

Non-renewable- All fossil fuels that includes Coal, all petroleum fuels such as diesel, petrol, LPG …these fuel resources are fast depleting… these non-renewable sources are the real culprits for producing carbon emissions during the process of energy production.

Green Fuel Revolution

(1) Diesel /Petrol / LPG /CNG /Coal - As said earlier these fuels produce carbon emissions and so these are not green, though CNG may be the best out of the lot as one molecule of methane produces just one molecule of Carbon dioxide, as against one molecule of diesel could produce as high as 16 molecules of CO2 and petrol as high as 8 molecules of CO2 approx.

(2) Ethanol- C2H5OH…whether it is 1G or 2G …can not be a green fuel as it produces carbon dioxide…one molecule of ethanol if burnt can produce 2 molecules of Carbon dioxide…so it is next best fuel after Methane/ natural Gas /CNG as far as Carbon emissions are concerned.

(3) Bio-mass - the Bio-mass is plenty in the world and can be used to produce energy for example bio-mass can be converted to ethanol -2G and ethanol can be used as a fuel…it can not be a Green Fuel since it produces carbon emissions.

(4) Electric vehicles using battery as source of power…currently the battery needs to be charged with electricity and 75% of our country’ s current electricity production is through Coal…so EV can not be classified as Green fuel vehicles…unless the battery gets charged by electricity produced by solar or wind power.

(5) Ammonia NH3 can be used as a fuel or even as a hydrogen carrier and can be called as a green fuel since no carbon emissions are involved. It does have potential…but since Ammonia is made out of Hydrogen, let us discuss Hydrogen in detail

(6) Hydrogen -H2…

Yes it can be called as the ultimate Green fuel as in combustion , only steam is produced…

However, there is a caveat…
if Hydrogen is produced from a fossil fuel or a hydrocarbon fuel, Carbon dioxide becomes a bye-product…Hydrogen so produced can not be Green hydrogen.

If Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water and the electricity so used is from thermal power plants …it can not be a Green hydrogen…

However, if Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water through electricity produced by Solar /wind, it can be called as Green Hydrogen …and this is the ultimate Green fuel the world is looking for …

Currently, two major consumers of World’s Hydrogen production capacity are Fertiliser plants (55%) and Petroleum refineries (45% ).
Fertiliser plants use hydrogen to produce ammonia , DAP…and Petroleum refineries use hydrogen for producing lighter fractions from heavier fractions by a process called Hydro-cracking… They also need hydrogen for
de-sulphursing fuels to meet Euro norms.

How Hydrogen is produced currently ?

48% of World’s Hydrogen production is from Natural Gas through different processes such as steam reforming, methane pyrolysis, partial oxidation.

30% of Hydrogen production is met through oil/ naphtha reforming …

18% Hydrogen production is met through coal gasification…

Only 4 % of global Hydrogen production is the real Green Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water through electricity power from wind /solar…so zero carbon emissions…
And this is the bull’s eye where the whole world is working.
A couple of informative articles attached …

Top 5 companies leading the Green revolution…authored by equity masters … surprisingly Adani green is missing…which already in to solar/wind …though recently it has declared foray in to Green hydrogen…

Tata Power perhaps is yet to give a road map for Green hydrogen… though they are focusing in to solar /wind power.

The other two articles are interesting ones you should not miss if you are interested to know more about Green hydrogen and the latest update on Green hydrogen initiative at international level by IEA as of 2021 (the last article)

Discl: This is not an investment advice. This is purely for education and information purpose


Types of Hydrogen as a Fuel
The types of hydrogen are determined based on the specificity of the production process (including the energy source). These are –

Green Hydrogen – It is produced through the electrolysis of water using renewable sources of energy,

Blue Hydrogen – It is produced by splitting natural gas into hydrogen and CO2 where carbon dioxide is captured and stored,

Grey Hydrogen – It is obtained by the same process as blue hydrogen is obtained but here CO2 is released into the atmosphere,

Pink Hydrogen – Water is electrolysised to obtain pink hydrogen but here nuclear energy is used as the source for the splitting of water molecules.

Yellow Hydrogen – To obtain this, electrolysis is performed with solar energy as the source


Volvo Study shows making EV’s leads to 70% more Emissions when compared with conventional fossil fuel engines. Another OEM Mazda has also the same findings.

We knew that the city roads may be cleaner with EV, but the power required to charge the EV battery still comes mainly from from Coal and other fossil fuels and there is no much change in atmospheric emissions as a whole.
Apart from this aspect as discussed above, volvo has done an apple to apple comparison which indicates that EV manufacturing process results in to greater emissions than conventional IC engine vehicles. …for example extraction and processing of raw material , battery making …all results in to higher emissions.

While EV is still evolving …it is a food for thought with this startling findings … …though for the time being it is being debated all over …but if the findings are correct which another OEM has already agreed…then we have to see how the world would look at it…

Watch out this space for my next post which may throw some light from investors point of view …for short to medium and long term investment point of view. .


Why Green Hydrogen as an Automobile Fuel ?

Battery operated EV’s may be the immediate need of the hour, but can not be the final solution for Zero carbon emission for reasons mentioned in my previous posts.

World over now the emphasis is on Green Hydrogen to be used
as an Automobile Fue as the final combustion product is steam. (Green Hydrogen is derived from electrolysis of water - Electricity power used should be from renewable sources wind, solar)
Currently two major industries namely Fertiliser plants and Refineries are the major consumers of hydrogen produced in India / World.
These are not green Hydrogen…these are all produced from hydrocarbon fuel or coal resulting in to carbon emissions.

So the immediate mandate for all Refineries and Fertiliser Plants who consume Hydrogen is to produce Green Hydrogen- at least to counter carbon emissions at their plant locations- it appears from different announcements by Oil PSU and Others - so actions/ efforts/ commitments are definitely there.

Now let us come to Automobiles, Green hydrogen can be used in automobiles in 2 ways:

(1) Internal combustion engines- code named as H2- ICEV.
It would burn Hydrogen fuel in stead of petrol and diesel. While there is no carbon emissions from tail pipe, but since air is used to burn Hydrogen and air contains 77 % Nitrogen , so nitric oxide will be an emission which is a pollutant. And there will be some lubricating oil getting burnt in combustion chamber, so to that extent some carbon emissions would be there. Therefore green Hydrogen used as a ICE fuel is not zero emission vehicle .

(2) Fuel Cell vehicles code named as H2- FCEV is the ultimate the world is looking for !
In a fuel cell vehicle , the hydrogen is not burnt…Hydrogen is used along with oxygen from air to produce electricity in an electrolyte medium with a cathode and an anode…
This electricity so produced would drive an electric motor which in stead would drive the vehicle. (This is just the opposite of electrolysis of water by using electricity to produce hydrogen)
There are no huge batteries required (one small battery may be required for only starting )…Recharging with hydrogen needs to be done…just like fuel topping.
This is Zero emission vehicle and this is the ultimate vehicle perhaps the world is aiming at.

Is the Technology for both H2-ICEV & H2- FCEV available ?

Yes available in both versions and sold commercially.
So what is not available is the Hydrogen infrastructure.
Attaching the following articles which would give you a lot of insights on Hydrogen as Auto fuel and would be helpful for your investment journey.

(1) 5 Reasons why you would prefer a Hydrogen Vehicle ultimately and 5- reasons why you would prefer an Electric vehicle now.
(2) H2- ICEV
(3) H2- FCEV
(4) India’s Hydrogen journey 2006-2021 and where are we now and will we expedite our plan in to action ?

Discl: it is not an investment advice…it is purely for information and education purpose


@1957 If this thread is about hydrogen, why don’t you give a more meaningful heading like “Hydrogen - the ultimate Green Fuel” or something similar so that anyone searching for information on hydrogen as a fuel will find it more easily?


Thanks for your good suggestion! Already done !


Delhi Govt to allow only EV & CNG vehicles into the City from Nov, 2027

Actions being taken in Hindsight!
Delhi , being the capital city of India, it draws media attention very fast…But in reality there are many cities in our country are facing severe air pollution.

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While this is a 4 month old article , but some of you would have missed this…
This is to say that Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicle is the new reality whether it is a car or a Bus…No need for a Lithium battery and No need of Recharging ! The only charge required is Hydrogen Gas which needs to be topped up just like petrol or diesel vehicle !
The hydrogen reacts with oxygen from air to generate electricity on board which drives the Motor which inturn drives the vehicle
Since there is no combustion … so No CO2, No Nox, No HC , No PM, No RSPM…

While this is only a pilot lot for trial purpose and Tata motors is yet to supply these buses…I don’t think there would be much contribution from Hydrogen Cell vehicles for next 2-3 years from business point of view…until hydrogen infrastructure is ready.

Discl: not an investment advice…only for education and information purpose

Belgian Researchers develop Solar Panels that produces Hydrogen. The photovoltaic cells in the very special Solar panel produce electricity which in turn takes water vapour from moisture in air to split it in to hydrogen and oxygen…
How wonderful discovery…Hope it will help commercial production…

L & T partners with ReNew to produce Green Hydrogen

And in another Development -

Gail seeks partners for setting up Electrolyzer manufacturing Plant to produce Green Hydrogen.

Nitin Gadkari says he will drive his Green Hydrogen Car in Delhi to show it is possible !

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Roof Top Hydrogen - Coming soon.

Roof top solar is now a Passe ! Solar power is getting cheaper day by day. Storage of electricity so produced is expensive ! If you want to sell solar power so produced, it would no longer be commercially viable.

Now look at Roof Top Hydrogen. You fill a chamber of “the roof top hydrogen device” with water. The next day, your cylinder or tank is full of Green Hydrogen — a Green fuel for your car or the cook stove.

So it is not to say that Solar power will no longer be produced…but very soon , Roof top Hydrogen would also become very popular !
At several places, research is on to see how soon this can be produced commercially.


John Cockerill is also listed in India


The main challenge is to reduce costs, Reliance has taken the 1-1-1 challenge, where it will reduce costs to US$1/kg in 1 decade. Apart from this, storage and transportation infrastructure requires right government policies and massive investments,

Source:An idea whose time has come...

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I think, we in India are moving very fast with regards to Green Hydrogen and so we may be able to reach the target much faster than other countries…

To produce Green Hydrogen, we need more and more Renewable sources such as Solar/Wind/Hydro…and we are firing all these three cylinders …currently…

I can see there are clearly 5- strategies evolving !

(1) All Fertiliser companies and oil refineries including Oil PSU’s have been instructed not to use Grey / Blue Hydrogen for their Hydrogen requirement …so these companies have already started work on Green Hydrogen for which they need to commission Solar / wind power to produce electricity which in turn will be used to split water to green hydrogen …

(2) Need of the hour is clean Air in our cities … and so EV is evolving…

Though EV in its present form is a big challenge for the long run…for two reasons …

(a) The batteries are being charged by electricity produced by Fossil fuels … such as Coal (currently 72% of total electricity in India) Which emits a lot of carbon emissions in to our atmosphere …So until we reach our renewable power target , EV is not solving our carbon emission / air pollution issue.

(b) Lithium Ion batteries are costly …there are only very few countries such as Chile, Australia, Argentina where lithium mines are available and cobalt required for Li ion batteries are sourced from only one country - Congo.

(3) Automobiles: Future plan is to.use Green hydrogen fuel to be used in automobile fuel in ICEV / Fuel cells- technology is available …vehicles are being produced in both modes…so here again Renewable sources of energy is required…to produce green Hydrogen and of course the Hydrogen infrastructure has to go a long way … however, when there is a will…there is a way…Look at the growth of CNG/ PNG infrastructure during last 7-8 years.

(4) For domestic electricity, we may have all kinds of options …roof top solar, roof top wind, solar /wind hybrids, roof top hydrogen etc …

(5)Li Ion Storage Battery:

With implementation of Green Hydrogen for Automobiles, we can do away with Li ion Batteries…However, Storage Battery will still be required for Domestic use and at solar and wind mill plants…

At the same time, Lithium and Cobalt are rare commodity …and we have to depend upon other countries …currently China is taking advantage of our need and supplying Li Ion batteries. All of a sudden , If China would increase the price of all raw material, then we would be hit …( it happened in case of pharma and speciality Chemicals recently when China increased cost of KRM all of a sudden). The same thing is happening with semiconductor issue across the world…and we are yet to come out of this …so the lesson is don’t depend upon Rare commodity, and rare elements for our technology need.Keep it simple and try to use the resources which are available in plenty.

No wonder , we are trying to buy out lithium mines outside India …

But China is ahead of us in their strategy … .they have the first movers advantage in EV technology and they do have very small capacity lithium mines …though not sufficient for their requirement … and cobalt they have to buy from Congo…
China wants to be self reliant in storage battery …so they are trying to do away with lithium ion Batteries. …

They have already produced Sodium Ion Batteries … Sodium and Lithium being neighbours in periodic table in Chemistry…they have similar properties…Sodium is plenty on earth … can be produced from soda ash…from sea salt water…

So if China can do it …We can also do it…we have plenty of Soda Ash in India. . .

under PLI scheme , a lot of well known players have applied …though all are are for lithium ion batteries …but we can always do our own research for sodium ion batteries …and we don’t need cobalt for sodium ion batteries …what we need is Iron and manganese…available plenty in our country.

If you want to know more on the subject , I am giving you some links which would be quite educative and informative …