Bye Bye Diesel Petrol, Welcome Biofuel- Global Biofuel Alliance- A paradigm shift in sustainable energy, Carbon foot print and economic strategy- various options before India

In a First in the world, Bajaj Auto announces its intention of manufacturing CNG 2 wheelers .

Some of the 2 wheeler OEM’ have already made a back door entry in to CNG through after market retro fitment. There are after market CNG retro kits available for 2 wheelers in the market place at a cost of Rs20,000 supplied by an Italian company Lendy Ranzo in name of Lovato brand.
These kits have been approved by ARAI , Pune and also got approval from respective OEM’s for retrofitment.
The CNG kit for two wheelers comprises of two CNG cylinders of 1.2 kg each, which can run up to 120 to 130 km per kg at an approximate cost of Rs 0.60 per km per single fill.

There is a pilot batch of Honda Activa Running with retro CNG kits in Delhi since last few years by Zomato food delivery.

These CNG vehicles can also run on CBG .

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What all is expected out of Global Biofuel Alliance that was formed during recent G20- Good insights & well summarised step by step

Blockquote So, Is Hybrid the future for India ? only time could tell. But going by the technology , it is great for India because of following reasons.
(1) No need for charging battery …no plug … No need for any power
(2) No range issue
(3) Battery- minimal import dependence …Lead acid battery can also be used.
(4) Regenerative braking is used to generate electricity and charge battery and run engine
(5) Milage better than EV because brake energy don’t go waste .
(6) What is most important is the engine can run on Petrol Ethanol blend up to 20% and later the engine can run with flex fuel up to 100% ethanol with technology upgradation. Brazil already has 34 million flex vehicles.

  1. Yes
  2. Yes
  3. Hybrids cannot and do not use lead acid batteries, batteries used in hybrids like Toyota Innova Hycross are Nickel–metal hydride battery, whose cells need to be imported.
  4. Regenerative braking is available in EVs too, it is not exclusive to hybrids!
  5. Point (4) and (5) are same.
  6. No, later the same engine cannot run on 100% ethanol, ethanol is corrosive and the fuel lines etc need to be changed, also ethanol significantly reduces the longevity of engines.

Maruti is flexing the government policies, these facts and studies are twisted, most of the studies are not objective. It is because of Maruti GoI took a u-turn on mandatory 6 airbags policy. Such is the power of Maruti.
.

Maruti Hybrid do have a dual battery system - one Lead acid battery and only a smaller lithium ion battery and therefore minimising requirement of expensive lithium, cobalt , nickel.
You may like to go through this link of Maruti web site.
Regenerative braking , yes I agree EV 's also have . But it finally it boils down to (1) total life cycle carbon foot print EV vs Hybrid and that Hybrid is having the advantage of not using any thermal electricity for recharging.(2) TCO- total cost of ownership per km.

When we say Ethanol in Indian context , we would always mean blended Ethanol for the time being as we have already achieved 12% blending and aiming to reach 20% by 2025 without any major engine modification . To that extent we would reduce import dependence. 100% ethanol , flexi fuel Engine would require major engine modification- but the basic IC engine remains the same. Therefore , the manufacturer has to upgrade the same Engine platform , though it may not be feasible to modify existing engines, but retrofitment of ethanol engine may be feasible at a later date.

Maruti Hybrids has a petrol engine which could run on ethanol blend- which of date 100% oil outlets dispenses only blended
ethanol.

There is no denying that the Indian customers have accepted hybrids in equal numbers vs EV in Car segment (without any govt subsidy on hybrids). And tomorrow , if the govt cuts
GST on ethanol hybrids, it may force industries to adopt ethanol technology and encourage atma nirbhar Bharat.
Brazil has millions of hybrids running with flex fuel / ethanol. So ethanol technology can not be challenged. Yes , to switch to 100% ethanol and fiex fuel , right now we may not have the right technology except Toyota- though Maruti has collaboration agreement with Toyota , the maker of hybrids with 100% ethanol.
But industries as a whole need to develop technology for 100% ethanol .

We can always accept or reject a study done by a premier institute, but we can not challenge the ground reality in Indian context and we will have to see how the technology evolves in a country like ours where we would have to depend upon imports which leads to supply chain disruptions depending upon geopolitical situations and volatility in price of imports and the fact remains that to make EV sustainable for long term in Indian context , the industries need to innovate , reduce cost , Recycle the Lithium cobalt nickel to the max extent possible and find out alternative to Lithium cobalt nickel and most importantly don’t depend upon Govt subsidy ,( FAME 1/ FAME 2/ FAME 3 and so on.

Govt recently withdrawn FAME 2 only to force industry to Innovate and reduce cost which is unfortunately not happening since FAME 1 , 2015.

As technologies evolve we will have a mix of EV, Hybrids, Ethanol/Ethanol Hybrids, CBG, CNG/LNG, Hydrogen could co-exists together for quite some time and share of petrol diesel would come down gradually.
Finally, It is Green hydrogen and Fuel cell which would take over.

Difference between a Hybrid battery vs EV battery- well explained !

Please read the full article to have better insights The article written sometime back does not even mention about the use of ethanol petrol blends , which is an import substitution to the extent of ethanol % in petrol which is currently 12-20% technology can be extended to 100% ethanol / flex fuel - future potential to replace petrol totally with ethanol.

As per this article, even if you you use 100% petrol ( don’t use ethanol blends) , still the Hybrid saves 50% fuel when compared with pure petrol engine and to that extent petrol imports gets reduced… whether to reduce in petrol imports in pure hybrids vs spend upon Li battery /rare earth elements imports in EV ?
You get 50% fuel savings in Hybrid for 5% of the rare earths that a pure EV needs ( Hybrids battery capacities being smaller, need only 5% of rare element than that of a EV battery). So do you extract 40 times more rare earths or save only 50% of the fuel?

the govt subsidy burden for EV is an additional expense.

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Heavy demand of lithium ion battery for BESS( Battery Energy storage solution) could put further pressure on availability of EV Batteries.

Hike in Ethanol and sugar price

CNG 2 wheeler from Bajaj - 50% reduction in fuel cost - a game changer for Bajaj

Needless to say that a vehicle designed to run on CNG can also run in CBG bio fuel

Toyota corolla Flex fuel confirmed

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Govt launches registration portal for Biogas plants

This is an excellent initiative by Govt. These registered unit will be given financial assistance.
In the
GOBARdhan aims to transform biodegradable and organic waste, including cattle dung, agricultural residues, and biomass, into high-value resources such as Biogas/ CBG and the bye- product is guess what ? it is organic manure which can be utilised for growing food crops. So you will get only organic vegetables and fruits to eat and ensure that you are at sound health. Do Bye-Bye to inorganic fertiliser chemicals like SSP, DAP, urea etc.
And during last 2 budgets , the govt had already announced subsidy for producing organic fertilisers. So now , Organic fertilisers from BCG is very much in alignment with this new announcement.

It is worth mentioning that CBG is a renewable energy , it is nothing but methane can be used in any CNG vehicles which are growing at a faster rate.
Moreover , CBG can also be Liquified to LBG. LBG is Liquified Biogas which is similar to LNG.
What is special with LNG/LBG ? LNG can be carried in LNG tanks like petrol diesel tanks and can be used in long haul trucks which can cover 1000’s of kms without refill and the engine is same as that of CNG

https://www.business-standard.com/india-news/gobardhan-initiative-govt-launches-registration-portal-for-biogas-plants-123092501046_1.html

Bio Fuel is great for environment but I am a little skeptical that it could be done at present. The entire auto industry has already invested a lot in EV. It might take 4-5 years for this shift from petrol to biofuel in my opinion.

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Today, 85% vehicles being produced in india are still petrol diesel 12 % may be CNG and 2-3% may be EV.
it makes sense and it is logical.that if we can run these existing IC engine vehicles with blend of renewable Bio fuels such as Ethanol, Bio diesel & CBG In place of CNG to the maximum extent possible without any engine modification. though for flex fuel hybrids some engine modification would be required (on the same platform of IC engine without major expensive alterations )

It is not a transition that is going to take place all of a sudden…EV will co-exist together Along with biofuels . EV is expensive to own and everyone can not afford to buy EV without Govt subsidy, It also has an import content of rare earth elements, And the recent life cycle study on carbon foot print indicates no appreciable improvement in carbon emissions.

It is not only for Environment which is primarily a Global issue and India is a part of it. Most importantly India aims to reduce its import dependency on diesel petrol which is currently stands at 90% of our requirement and that too uncertainty of availability due to Geo-political situations all the time and price volatility.

Therefore my take is that Bio fuels such as Bio-Ethanol 1G/2G, CBG/LBG, CNG/LNG all will coexists together along with EV for quite some time.

Our import dependency on diesel petrol will gradually come down.

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Is there any indication/publically available data related carbon footprints(Scope1,2,3 emission of GHG) of EV vis a vis flex fuel hybrids ?

If flex fuel hybrids have lesser carbon foot prints compared to EV, that may be the obvious choice provided the refueling infrastructure is already available.

Based on my understanding/experience I would like to agree that in longer term dependency on petrol/diesel may indeed come down.

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Good question !
Earlier also someone asking me the same.
I have now with me the detailed IIT kanpur Study on EV vs Hybrids both on foreign brands and Indian brands.
It is orginal document, though available in public domain attached here for knowledge and benefit of all valuepickr members
Earlier I had attached only the summary which I am attaching again for ready reference.

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Thanks Om !

News article
-BEVs emit 187g CO2 eq./km, hybrids emit 167g CO2 eq./km, while ICEV(petrol only doesn’t talk about diesel) emit 244g CO2 eq./km.

To me, newsletter isn’t giving full idea of scope1,2,3 emissions. ( i.e. emissions happened during raw material production & transport, emissions happened at manufacturing process, emissions happened at transporting finished vehicles)

IIT paper, is more detailed
Page -32
Foreign brand
1.The life cycle GHG emissions for BEV, HEV, and ICEV were 240, 174, and 242 gCOeq./km
2. For BEV, GHG emissions during the manufacturing of vehicles were 41.17% higher than HEV, and for the ICEV, they were 14.7% lower than HEV.
3. The life cycle GHG emissions for BEV and HEV increased by 7% and 1.1% after a one-time battery replacement. The increase in GHG emissions during the production vehicle increased by 35.4% for BEV and 3% for HEV due to onetime battery replacement.

Page -33
India brand
1.The life cycle GHG emissions for BEV, HEV, and ICEV-P were 187, 167, and 244 gCOeq./km respectively,
2. GHG emissions during the manufacturing of vehicles were the highest for BEV. For BEV, GHG emissions during manufacturing were 35.3% higher than HEV, and for the ICEV-P, they were 3% lower than HEV
3. The life cycle GHG emissions for BEV and HEV increased by 6.9 and 1.2% after 1x battery replacement. The increase in GHG emissions during the production of vehicles was 30.2% for BEV and 6% for HEV due to 1x battery replacement.

I am trying to identify scope 1,2,3 emissions in terms kg or grams of CO2 emitted for manufacturing a vehicle(BEV, HEV, ICEV), did i miss it into IIT paper ?

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MGL to set up Asia’s largest CBG plant in Mumbai, signs MoU with BMC

This is what future looks like !.

MGL in Mumbai will now generate CBG by conversion of 1000 tons of solid municipal waste into around 40 tonnes of CBG -compressed biogas every day.

It looks like all CGD’s …such as Adani Gas, IGL, Gujarat Gas will soon follow similar routes.

Existing CNG filling stations now can dispense CBG in CNG vehicles without any change in CNG stations infra.

CBG can also be used in place of PNG for domestic kitchen.

How does it help ?
CNG is non renewable and we are import dependent and subject to price volatility.
CBG is renewable - Price stable, Atma Nirbhar Bharat

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The only problem that I can see with the Bio fuel is that most of the ethanol is produced using sugarcane. And Sugarcane is a crop which require a large amount of water to grow compared to other crops. Given the population of India will it be sustainable?

EV has it own problem like production of lithium itself produce a lot of CO2. With EV the demand of electricity will increase. Most of the electricity is still produced in thermal power plant. For EV to work renewable energy stations will require a energy storage solution, so that they can become reliable supplier of energy.

And EV is only sustainable in Light vehicles. In heavy vehicle which is used for transportation of goods. The lithium battery weight will be so huge, that it will not be feasible.

Hydrogen can be the future and Toyota has break through with hydrogen combustion engine. But the problem with hydrogen is that the production itself emits a lot of CO2. And green hydrogen’s cost of production is too high which makes it unsustainable.

In my opinion all three solution should be explored rather than relying on any one of them.

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The report is Cradle-to-Grave LCA which takes care of the entire life cycle of extraction, refining , manufacturing, maintenance and recycling for a fixed life of 2,00,000 kms.
What I find they have added all 3 GHG’s CO2, N2O & CH4 together and they have made it CO2 equivalent, since all the three are very strong Global warming Gases

If you are looking for how these vehicle types compare only for CO2 during manufacturing , this exclusive comparative data not available in this report , though they may have it.

Ethanol production from Non food crops technology already available. Many oil PSU’s have installed 2 G ethanol plant the feedstock for which is straw, agri waste , stubble …etc.
So dependence on ethanol from sugarcane, grains should come down., share of 2G ethanol should go up.

On EV , I see another issue. Renewable energy storage is required for feeding in to grid and the ESS would again depend upon lithium ion battery. So there is a competition between EV & Renewal energy storage solution at global level for getting the same lithium ion battery the elements of lithium cobal nickel available only in few countries as of now.

So EV will continue to coexist and yes limited to 2 wheelers and may be cars and buses in metro cities. But now since 2 wheeler CNG/ CBG is available , it would be much cheaper to buy and operate a CBG 2 wheeler.

Hybrids is also becoming very popular with impressive carbon foot print and cost of operation even without govt subsidy

Hydrogen is the ultimate Green fuel…But why single out Toyota for hydrogen only . .today every Auto OEM India has a pilot project hydrogen iC engine and some of them with even fuel cell vehicle. Once hydrogen filling infra made available , they will produce in a large number. because Hydrogen IC is a upgradation of existing petrol diesel engine.
Leyland hydrogen / Tata hydrogen pilot buses are already running on Road. A few hydrogen filling stations have also been made at Delhi and ense where.
Hydrogen IC engine is not a big deal, Fuel cell though.

Finally yes, many alternatives to disel petrol now available in Indian roads, EV, Hybrids, Ethanol blend , flexi, flexi hybrids, CNG, CBG, LNG, LBG, Biodiesel , Hydrogen, Fuel cell …and so on.

It may be Interesting to note that except EV, all the above alternative fuels can be run by the Good old IC engine. Fuel cell is a different Cup of tea all together

Punjab Govt initiates CBG plant @20 Tonnes of CBG per day at Hoshiarpur - to be ready by Dec 2023 out of Agri waste , municipality waste.

If this is done in all cities locally , then we don’t need to construct lengthy pipe lines like HBJ pipeline length of which is 2300 kms which goes from Hajira to Jagdishpur and now extended to many locations.

And there is never dearth of municipality waste in each city town. Apart from CBG as the main product , the other bye product is organic fertilizer which would be sold and used by farmers and you get organic vegetables , crops and fruits… Win -win situation for all stakeholders !

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CBG producer EverEnviro injects CBG into Avantika Gas’ piped natural gas (PNG) Grid at Indore on eve of Smart City Day