Bioeconomy - Biotechnology


At its simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and to preserve dairy products.

Bioeconomy :

The bioeconomy is the knowledge-based production and use of biological resources to provide products, processes and services in all economic sectors within the frame of a sustainable economic system

  • Indian bio economy size in 2020 is $70.2 Billion (Link to source Bioeconomy report 2021 - A must read)
  • By 2025 it would be worth of $100 - $150 bllion
  • The share of BioEconomy in the national GDP too has been rising steadily in the last few years. The share now stands at 2.7 % against 2.2 % in 2019
  • Total 840 biotech startups in 2020 to take the total numbers to 4,237. About 61 % of these
    startups are in the biomedical segment including biopharma, medical technologies and diagnostics

Segments in Bioeconomy

Biotechnology is a big ocean so here I am listing down some important building blocks.

Genomics & Diagnostics

What is a DNA, Gene and Genomes ? Watch a short video here


DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a chemical made up of two long molecules. The molecules are arranged in a spiral, like a twisted ladder. We call this the double helix structure. There is DNA in the nucleus of every cell. DNA carries genetic information. It has all the instructions that a living organism needs to grow, reproduce and function.


Genes are short sections of DNA. Genes carry information for particular characteristics, such as ear shape or eye colour. Different sets of genes carry information for different characteristics. There are many genes in a chromosome.


In a cell nucleus, DNA is organised into coiled strands called chromosomes.
Humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell. The fruit fly has only 8 chromosomes and is often used to study patterns of inheritance, while red king crabs have a whopping 208!

Half the chromosomes are inherited from one parent and half from the other. As humans, therefore, we have 23 chromosomes from each parent.

This explains why organisms can share characteristics from both parents. A child, for example, might have red hair like their dad and long fingers like their mum.

What is a genome?

A genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic instructions. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop.

Example of a disease that are caused by DNA mutations

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disease caused by defects, called mutations, in the beta globin gene that helps make hemoglobin. Normally, hemoglobin in red blood cells takes up oxygen in the lungs and carries it through the arteries to all the cells in the tissues of the body

Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyze biological markers in the genome and proteome, and how their cells express their genes as proteins, applying molecular biology to medical testing. In medicine the technique is used to diagnose and monitor disease, detect risk, and decide which therapies will work best for individual patients,[1]2 and in agricultural biosecurity similarly to monitor crop- and livestock disease, estimate risk, and decide what quarantine measures must be taken

Basically Molecular diagnostics are the techniques used to identify the defects in the genes.


Cell and Gene Therapy (Most of the research is on Oncology, which targets a specific faulty gene and repair )

References / Cures by using Cell Therapy :

First UK patient receives stem cell treatment to cure loss of vision

Some of the proven treatments in India

LV Prasad eye care is one of the institute working on this

Gene Therapy


Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) - Gene therapy is a game changer for our son

End of Part 1

Part 2 :

Bioprinting (Regenerative Medicine)

This is an extension of 3D printing, where we can think of building organs in the Lab ( Something like meat produced (cell cultured) in the lab

Lab grown Fish

Bioprinting human tissues (this can reduce the dependency on animals for drug trials )

How Scientists Are 3D Bio-Printing Human Organs

Agri Biotech

Gene editing in Crops by using CRISPR - CAS9 . we can rely on these and produce crops with more nutrition values many more advantages.

This is slightly different to GMO crops where a foreign gene is induced , a good research paper. ijerph-17-02935-v2.pdf (2.0 MB)

Tropic Biosciences case study

A very interesting thing is there is open MTA framework (it is like open source software where anyone can take the software and use it for non profit purposes and pay only when one modifies and resells it ) , this is a right step to encourage and more people to participate in this research in a collaborative way

A good webinar on : Agricultural Biologicals Today & Tomorrow: Opportunities and Challenges

I think Sumitomo and Coromondal ( I am sure many others are producing bio pesticides ). Sumito Chemicals india works with their parent subsidiary Valent

Natco is working on similar lines

Rallis R&D

Human and Animal Biotechnology


@adminph2 , this thread is under construction , I am keep on editing the content, please bare with me.


Thanks @Rafi_Syed for starting.

Top 10 Most Innovative Biotech Startups in India

I found it interesting and relevant hence posting here.


Go through these resources to understand the industry structure

  • Getting Started in Life Science Investing with Dr. David Sable
  • Unseen Trends in Biotechnology by Mr.Sajal Kapoor


  • The Code Breaker Hardcover – Walter Isaacson

Latest Approved Treatments by FDA

Human & Animal Biotechnology

Industrial Biotechnology

  • Neste and Vitol Aviation enable Heathrow to become first major UK airport to incorporate Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)

Note : I will keep adding to the first post and use this post to add all the resources and tools that will aid novice investor to understand the basics of industry


My Final update (sorry for the delay )

Industrial Biotechnolgy

Enzymes and Fermentation

An excellent presentation from Novozymes

Rethinks Report

Another good one from the industry leader Chr Hansen

Gevo, Inc. is a renewable chemicals and advanced biofuels company headquartered in unincorporated Douglas County, Colorado in the Denver-Aurora metropolitan area

A good report from Boston Consulting Group

Another from McKinsey (The Bio Revolution )

Special thanks to @harsh.beria93 who encouraged me to start (otherwise I am hesitant because I feel like I cannot as articulate as others ) , many thanks to my guru and mentor who is always there if I have any question to ask none other than @Worldlywiseinvestors

I also draw inspiration from @Tar and @sahil_vi @Chandragupta @barathmukhi the way they disect the content and present .
Last but not least for such great session by Mr. Sajal Kapoor for the Marathon session on this topic.

Feel free to spot if any errors and keep this thread alive by contributing .


Biofuels_Sector_Update_-_Jul_2021.pdf (1.7 MB)


Remarkable initiative. Truly appreciate your efforts in compiling all information pertaining to the biotechnology sector.

Can we get into stock specific discussions on this thread? What is the comprehensive list of biotechnology companies from India that can help us ride the biotech wave? Thanks


This is a fascinating discusison with an analyst at ARK Invest’s genomics ETF. He speaks of the entire value chain of genomics and genetics - across instrumentation, diagnostics and therapeutics, where we are in the innovation curve and what some of the big trends can be.


Did anyone had a chance to look at Kimia bioscience.

Looking at the financials, seems like a turn around story. Also r reading the annual report, company Headcount has increased significantly and most of the headcount increase is employing more scientist for R&D activities…


How do you see Titan Bio-tech doing in this space? Please put forward your views.

I’ve been reading about CRISPR and was pleasantly surprised to read that some Indian scientists were able to develop a diagnostic tool for covid19 using this tech.

Any Indian biotech making advances or investments in CRISPR should be looked at closely for a potential investment opportunity.

I’d highly recommend reading Walter Isaacson’s ‘The Code Breaker’ to get a quick primer on CRISPR and it’s potential.





Clinicians, researchers and regulators rely on Flatiron technology and evidence to learn faster and power smarter care for every patient. Because transforming cancer care takes all of us.

Proteins are essential to life, supporting practically all its functions. They are large complex molecules, made up of chains of amino acids, and what a protein does largely depends on its unique 3D structure. Figuring out what shapes proteins fold into is known as the “protein folding problem”, and has stood as a grand challenge in biology for the past 50 years. In a major scientific advance, the latest version of our AI system AlphaFold has been recognised as a solution to this grand challenge by the organisers of the biennial Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP). This breakthrough demonstrates the impact AI can have on scientific discovery and its potential to dramatically accelerate progress in some of the most fundamental fields that explain and shape our world.

A protein’s shape is closely linked with its function, and the ability to predict this structure unlocks a greater understanding of what it does and how it works. Many of the world’s greatest challenges, like developing treatments for diseases or finding enzymes that break down industrial waste, are fundamentally tied to proteins and the role they play.


afryinsights_winter_2021_bioindustry.pdf (2.3 MB)